Stem Cells have been shown in a laboratory setting to have the remarkable ability to differentiate into different cell types. In the test-tube setting they can develop into the various tissues in the body like muscle, tendon or cartilage. Injection treatment with Stem Cells can reduce pain and improve function in patients affected by osteoarthritis. The precise mechanism of action of stem cells when injected into a joint is still poorly understood, but scientists hope that treatment with stem cells can help promoting the healing of damaged cartilage, this is an area of ongoing research.
The FDA has the authority to regulate stem cell products in the United States. Today, doctors routinely use stem cells that come from bone marrow or blood in transplant procedures to treat patients with cancer and disorders of the blood and immune system.
In stem cell therapy, donor stem cells are placed in your body to replace and repair diseased cells. Stem cells grow and divide for a long time, so treatment gets your body started on the healing process, and then it continues to create healthier cells over time. Unlike stem cell therapy, exosome therapy doesn’t involve using donor cells in your body. Instead, exosomes are extracted from donated human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sterilized. Exosomes should be a simpler, safer, lower cost, more easily stored and transported, alternative to stem cells. Critically, exosomes are inherently less risky that live stem cell transplants.
Exosomes can be released by various kinds of stem cells and are able to modify the function of the receptor cells and tissues. Compared with stem cells, which may cause abnormal differentiation and tumor formation, the exosomes mediated therapy harbors a more promising future.
Patients considering treatment with exosome products in the United States should:
The risks to research participants undergoing stem cell transplantation include tumor formation, inappropriate stem cell migration, immune rejection of transplanted stem cells, haemorrhage during neurosurgery and postoperative infection.